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    北京中小學英語教師招聘考試基礎知識復習資料

    http://www.hjd63.com 2019-03-22 09:59 北京教師招聘 [您的教師考試網]

    (一) 知識概要

    冠詞在英語中只有3個詞,分為兩類:不定冠詞a與an,定冠詞the。a用在以輔音開始的單數名詞前,an用于以元音開始的單詞前。不定冠詞用來表示一類事物中泛指的某一事物,而定冠詞則用于特指的某一個或某些事物,可用于不可數名詞、可數名詞單數及可數名詞復數前。

    (二) 正誤辨析

    [誤]This building is an university.

    [正]This building is a university.

    [析]a用于以輔音音素開始的單詞前,而an用于以元音音素開始的單詞前,而不是元音字母開頭的單詞前。university的第一個音素是[j],所以 用a而不要用an。又如:There is a “n” in the word.是錯句,應為:There is an “n”in the word.因字母n的發音的第一個音素是元音。要注意的還有hour因其第一個字母h不發音,所以應該用an hour。例如:

    I need an hour to finish the work.

    It is a useful dictionary.

    It is a European country.

    I bought a used car.

    [誤]I need a umbrella because it looks like raining.

    [正]I need an umbrella because it looks like raining.

    [析]因umbrella的第一個音素是元音,所以應用an.常用的情況有:an old man, an English teacher, an elephant, an idea, an hour ago, an honest boy…。

    [誤]“Can you help me” “Sorry, I'm in hurry.”

    [正]“Can you help me” “Sorry. I'm in a hurry.”

    [析]不定冠詞的主要用法如下:

    1.用來表示一類人或事物,如:She is a teacher.

    2.指某一類人或事物中的一個,如:An elephant is bigger than a horse.

    3.泛指某一人或事物,如:A man is waiting for you at the school gate.

    4.相當于“one”的概念,如:I just bought a new dictionary.

    5.其主要的難點是用在固定詞組中:

    如:have a walk/a rest/a look

    又如:in a hurry 匆匆忙忙

    make a face 作鬼臉

    do somebody a favour 幫某人忙

    a number of =many

    又如:have a good time (玩得好)

    have a cold (感冒)

    have a headache (頭痛)

    have a break=have a rest

    [誤]I bought the dictionary yesterday. A dictionary is very good.

    [正]I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is very good.

    [析]在文章中第一次提到某物時用不定冠詞,而第二次提到時用定冠詞。

    [誤]Please turn off lights before you leave.

    [正]Please turn off the lights before you leave.

    [析]雖然是第一次提到某物但說話雙方均知其所指,也應用定冠詞。

    [誤]There are nine planets around a sun.

    [正]There are nine planets around the sun.

    [析]世上獨一無二的天體等名詞前應加定冠詞,如:the earth, the moon, the sun, the sky, the sea.

    [誤]I live on a second floor of this building.

    [正]I live on the second floor of this building.

    [析]在序數詞,形容詞最高級前要用定冠詞。如:He is the oldest in the family.

    [誤]I want to learn the second language this term.

    [正]I want to learn a second language this term.

    [析]在序數詞的含意不是順序中的第一第二,而其意在于再學一個,再來一個時,應用a,本句的意思應為:這學期我要學一門第二外語。

    [誤]Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

    [正]The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

    [析]在河流名稱前應加定冠詞,如:the Yellow River(黃河)。

    [誤]Look, there are Alp.

    [誤]Look, there are the Alp.

    [正]Look, there are the Alps.

    [析]具體的某一座山不加定冠詞,如:Mountain Tai.但在山名稱前加定冠詞后,其山名要加s,來表示山脈。the Alps即為阿爾卑斯山脈。如:The Alps are in the center of Europe.

    [誤]Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world.

    [正]The Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world.

    [析]報刊名稱前應加定冠詞。

    [誤]Rich are not always happy.

    [正]The rich are not always happy.

    [析]在形容詞前加定冠詞表示一類人,而在姓的前面加定冠詞,姓后加s表示某一家,如:The turners are going to move to New York.

    [誤]I like to eat bread for breakfast. Bread sells in this shop is very good.

    [正]I like to eat bread for breakfast. The bread sells in this shop is very good.

    [析]物質名詞特指時也應加定冠詞。

    [誤]The sun rises in east.

    [正]The sun rises in the east.

    [析]在方向、方位前應用定冠詞,如:in the east, in the west, in the north, in the south, in the direction 及in the past, in the future

    [誤]Do you know who invented telephone

    [正]Do you know who invented the telephone

    [析]在特定和專有事物或名稱前要加定冠詞,

    如:the English Channel 英吉利海峽

    the Panama Canal 巴拿馬運河

    the Suez Canal 蘇伊士運河

    [誤]Would you please buy some food for the supper

    [正]Would you please buy some food for supper

    [析]泛指一日三餐前無定冠詞。

    [誤]I like to climb the mountain in the autumn.

    [正]I like to climb the mountain in autumn.

    [析]一年四季前不用定冠詞,如:Spring is the best season in a year.

    [誤]Sometimes my parents come to school to see me.

    [正]Sometimes my parents come to the school to see me.

    [析]有些名詞被用作其本身原來所含目的時不加冠詞,如:go to school上學,leave school(輟學),after school(放學),但如果當建筑物講時應加冠詞,如例句中其父母來校不是上學,而是看望孩子,則要加定冠詞。又如,He was in hospital for two days.(他在醫院住院兩天了。)而:He went to the hospital to see his mother.他去醫院看望他的母親。

    [誤]I bought a same dictionary as she bought.

    [正]I bought the same dictionary as she bought.

    [析]在慣用法the same, the only, the very前的定冠詞不可換為不定冠詞。

    [誤]The police caught the thief by his arm.

    [正]The police caught the thief by the arm.

    [析]這是英文表達法與中文的明顯不同之處,也是初學者極易忽視之處。在英語中的某些動詞,如:catch(抓),take(拿),strike (打),pat(拍),hit(擊),hold(握),pull(拉)…動詞后應加人,再加介詞on, by, in, with…之后要加定冠詞,再加人體的某一部位。這時的定冠詞千萬不要換作his,her,their等詞。

    責任編輯:郭爽

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